Monday, October 16, 2017

Writing by Hand

I wrote this draft by hand. Really.

I made myself write by hand, then type up this blog for you. I wanted to remind myself of the process, now that I have the skills to generate original writing through the keyboard.

When I I talk to groups, parents inevitably ask me questions about handwriting. No matter the topic--handwriting is always a question posed by someone (or many) in the group. It just happened last Thursday when I spoke to a homeschool group in Delaware, Ohio. I was soon discussing the hows and whens and whys of teaching print, cursive, and keyboard--and the value of teaching all three through Copywork and Dictation practice.

The main point I emphasize is this: there is value in practicing all three forms of writing, value in progressing through all three handwriting stages, and value in not skipping one mode of writing over the other.

Research is mounting on the positive benefit of teaching reading in conjunction with writing. Watch our free video on called "Welcome to the Forest" to see how we teach new readers to connect their literacy language skills: Say it; Read it; Write it. When it comes to teaching writing--like teaching reading--don't wait for some magic day when your "child is ready." If children are of school age, it is time to teach them to read and write.

Print versus Cursive is the primary debate. Recent research indicates that writing in cursive has a positive impact in the development of writing skills. Read this New York Times article and remember:

  • Cursive teaches kids how to read cursive writing
  • Cursive teaches better control of spacing, anchoring letters to the line, and letter position for struggling writers
  • Cursive usage is correlated with strong writing composition skills
  • Cursive is fast and efficient for note-taking
Bottom line: don't skip cursive. If your child struggles with writing, and it is too stressful or time-consuming to teach all three modes of writing, then skip print. The child with dysgraphia will still learn how to read print (it is everywhere), but will likely fare better with cursive. Convincing a child with dysgraphia to learn cursive is the biggest challenge. If they persevere, my students with dysgraphia all achieve faster, more legible writing with cursive.

Of course, I don't need to convince anyone that kids need to learn keyboard. I do need to convince kids to use proper finger position when typing. Proper finger position is the key to becoming fast and efficient typists who don't need to look at their hands. I discourage the hunt and peck method. After all, the ultimate goal is functional typing for college and career. Colleges give students timed online examinations. Worse, they assume the faster the timing, the less likely kids have opportunity to cheat. So kids have to be fast and efficient to perform their best on these tests. One college student recently told me she took an exam with 10 "short answer" essays--each a half page of typing--and she was given 50 minutes to complete the exam. That is five minutes per half page of text! This is not the first story I have heard! Clearly, in college keyboard speed is essential to survival and success.

Sadly, even intermediate-grade students are now required to take computer-based state tests. Kids are expected to keyboard essays, as well. So we don't want our kids to be searching for keys when they need all their cognitive attention and effort focused on answering questions or generating writing. 

Since original thought should always be the primary cognitive load in generating text, the act of typing--or any form of writing--has to become automatic. All writing paths--print, cursive, keyboard--become automatic through the practice of Copywork and Dictation. Copywork practice does for writing what swimming laps does for endurance and technique--it's training. Copywork and Dictation helps all underlying writing skills become stronger, more efficient, and automatic. 

At Rooted in Language, we have a plan for years of Copywork and Dictation practice as your kids learn print, cursive, and keyboard. Remember, move the hardest mode into Copywork and the easiest mode into Dictation. Here is my recommendation:

Learning Stage
New Writer and Reader
Elementary to Intermediate level
Intermediate to Middle School level
High School level
Both Keyboard and Cursive

Even high school students should continue to practice writing by hand to keep their skills sharp and efficient for taking notes in class. This NPR review of a famous study will help you feel committed to helping your kids become excellent note-takers who write by hand.

When parents ask if kids with dysgraphia can just skip handwriting, or if kids who struggle to read can just use audiobooks, I encourage them to keep pushing through the struggle. Help kids read and write to the highest level they can achieve. 

This is the analogy I share when people say kids will mostly type someday:
We would never tell our kids, "Why walk if you are going to mostly drive as an adult?" We want our kids to become adults who can walk and drive--ready to live healthy and effective lives. We want our kids to be ready for any situation. After all, one can't walk on a highway, and one can't drive on a forest path. Walking plus driving gets our kids almost everywhere they need--or hope--to go in life.

Sunday, October 8, 2017

Castles, Kingdoms, and Conquerors!

As a young therapist, I realized a sure way to entice kids to learn was through castles. Maybe it is my own romantic enthusiasm seeping in, but most of my students find the Middle Ages interesting Some aspect of this era can usually engage kids of all ages: weaponry, architecture, clothing, art, social systems, history, fairy tales, literature, dragons, geography, video games, travel, and so on.

A study of castles exposes kids to new vocabulary words, or should I say old vocabulary words, which is a great opportunity for Word Study. I remember once a young student and I studied the word helmet, discovering the word helm, as well as the <-et> diminutive suffix. Castles and kingdoms are great for teaching history, but even better for teaching the history of the English language. Here are a few words that intrigue me for Word Study, all explored through my recent travel adventure.

According to many sources, our language began with a language known as Proto Indo European (PIE). This language souce spread, as people spread, throughout the Mediterranean and Europe, into India, the Baltics and the Middle East. It arrived on an island, now called Great Britain, via a people now called the Celts. These tribes were conquered by the Romans during the Roman Empire. That is where my journey in York begins.

In England last month, we visited the wonderful town of York, which is about a two-hour train ride north of London. Walking the streets of York is like walking through the history of the English language. It is a city built by many, and it still has the city walls and town gates to prove it. At one time, York was the “second city of the realm,” according to one brochure. York began as a fortress, built by the Roman 9th Legion in 71 AD (now referred to as CE). York's earth ramparts were raised by the Romans, and Constantine was pronounced as emperor in York in 306 AD. Constantine spread Christianity through the region.The arrival of Monks brought the Bible, which was written in Latin so those religious words entered our language, as well as other ancient Romans words, such as street, mile, and cheese. York was called Eboracum back then, and ancient Roman foundations are still evident throughout the city.

When the Romans left England--they had to hurry home since their Empire was collapsing--the area was vulnerable to invasion. Three Germanic tribes (carrying Germanic languages) invaded England, known as the Jutes, the Saxons, and the Angles. We tend to refer to these tribes collectively as the Anglo-Saxons. These tribes pushed the native Celts into Wales, Ireland, and Western Scotland, helping to eradicate that language from English, leaving only the Celtic words London, Avon (meaning river), and crag behind. Since the Angles had more land, the country was named Angle-land, and eventually England. Their Germanic language merged into what we now call Old English. Most of our current, everyday, peasant words are Anglo-Saxon, such as work, house, and the.

Soon enough, the Vikings from Norway and Denmark arrived on England's shores, and they renamed this Roman fortress town Jorvik or Yorwik, which we now call York. The Vikings conquered and ruled the northern region for a brief period of time, adding a few Norse words to the English Language, such as get, want, and sky. In York, we walked down a main road called Stonegate, an old street in York that once lead to the gate of the old Roman fortress. Gate is a Viking word for street, so we walked along many gates throughout York, such as Castlegate and Monkgate, to name a few.

York survived and thrived through all of this, even when the Normans (from a northern region of France) arrived in 1066 AD. I tell my students we can blame a man named William the Conqueror for adding French, with its complex spelling patterns, to the English language. The Normans fortified York’s city walls, adding their signature to this historic city. During their half- century rule, the French Normans added many government and military words to English, giving us a confusing spelling for the word we now pronounce colonel!

The city of York flourished during the Medieval period--a time of kings, wars, feudal lords and peasants. During this period, the walls were reinforced so well, that they still encircle York today. By the time the Tutors took control of the throne, York's cathedral was completed. The beautiful York Minster took 250 years to build! Cathedrals were named for the cathedra or throne of the Archbishop. A Minster was a center of learning or ministering, which differentiated it from an Abby. There are remains of an Abby destroyed during the religious wars between the Catholic and Protestant rulers.

The printing press brought a literary age to all of England during the Renaissance period. The press forced printers to settle on spelling conventions. While the printing press solidified spelling, it did not control the ever-morphing pronunciation of words. Thus the once voiced /gh/ in right and /k/ in knight are now only seen, but not heard. Meanwhile, Shakespeare was wooing audiences in London, adding new words to the English language at a remarkable rate. Classical works were available to all, so Latin and Greek had a profound influence on English language growth.

York shared its name during the Colonial period, as a New York was established in America. Meanwhile, Britain's York was turning into a fashionable resort, with Georgian buildings built in the 18th century. (This is a good time to remember “crazy King George” and the American Revolution.) Loan words entered the English language, through the French, Dutch, and Spanish. Food, animal, and plant names were added to the lexicon, growing English into the largest language in the world.! As English spread to many nations, pronunciations and dialects varied across the globe.

York even had a prominent place in the Industrial Revolution, with its historic train station and train museum. Again we see how industry, and now technology, have added even more words to our ever-growing English language!

Today, the lovely town of York is a popular tourist attraction. Tourists, who continue to share and spread words around the globe, can enjoy York's walk through the history of English. We walked along the ancient city walls and climbed up into the Bars. Bars were four city gateways, each containing a portcullis. One of them still has its barbican, or funnel-like approach, which forced attackers to bunch together if they tried to invade the city. Bars welcomed monarchs and displayed the heads of traitors!

The words <bar> and <barbican> are perfect examples of how one cannot let assumptions rule in Word Study. I initially thought these two words might be related, but a brief look at Etymonline shows <barbican> comes from the PIE words <per> “around” and <wer> “to cover.” So the word <barbican> is related to the word <cover>.  The word <bar> has different meanings, such as the fastener on a gate, a whole body of lawyers, and a tavern, as well as the verb meaning of “to obstruct.” The word <bar> gives kids an opportunity to practice their doubling rule as they create derivatives:

The point is, I learned a new word which led me on a Word Study journey . . .

When I educated my children, we didn’t have the money to visit castles and ancient towns, but we visited them in our history, literature, picture books, encyclopedias, myths, and media. I remember we all wondered over the spelling of the word Medieval. Why the <ie> vowel team and the <al> ending? If only we knew then what we know now: investigate words using Structured Word Inquiry!

medi + ev + al → Medieval (I am not sure if the second base word is <ev> or <eve>)

<medi> means “middle” as in <mediate>
<ev> means "age" and is related to the word <eon>
<al> is a suffix

Medieval literally means the Middle Age, and it has nothing to do with being an <evil> time, as I thought as a child!

So you see, castles and Word Study really are good bedfellows!